Researchers followed up on some 3700 kidney donors whose nephrectomies were done at the University Minnesota between 1963 and 2007. The donors' mortality rates matched those of the general population, and their rate of end-stage renal disease was lower.
An editorial points out the dangers of extrapolating the results from this nearly all-white sample to other ethnic groups. It concludes that the results "could encourage the expansion of the donor pool."
Citation:NEJM 2009, 360(5)459-69
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Researchers measured information technology use in some 40 urban Texas hospitals, and then compared usage levels with hospital costs, patient length of stay, and patient outcomes. (An assessment tool gauged hospitals' actual use of automated notes and records, order entry, decision support, and test results.) The study encompassed nearly 170,000 patients older than age 50 over a 6-month period.
Among the findings:
Higher scores (and thus higher levels of automation) on notes and records favored lower rates of overall inpatient mortality.
Higher order-entry scores were associated with lower mortality from MI and CABG.
Higher decision-support scores were associated with lower mortality from pneumonia.
An editorialist finds some flaws, but calls the study a "landmark" nonetheless. He concludes: "For large- and medium-sized hospitals, it appears that the time is now" to adopt these technologies.
Citation: Arch Intern Med. 2009;169(2):108-114
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In 2005, the U.S. had 900,000 substantiated cases of child maltreatment, with the highest rates in children aged 3 years and younger. Intimate partner violence (IPV) has historically been linked to child abuse and neglect by the perpetrator, often assumed to be the father or other male figure in the home. To learn the extent to which IPV coincides with maternal child abuse and neglect, researchers focused on a subgroup from a longitudinal prospective study that had oversampled high-risk families (i.e., births were nonmarital).
There were 2508 mothers with 3-year-old children and current partners (the child’s biological father in 76% of the families). The mothers reported committing an average of 25 acts of psychological aggression and 17 acts of physical aggression in the previous year; 11% reported some neglect in the previous year; and 55% reported spanking their children in the previous month. About 40% of the women suffered violence by their current partners; they reported significantly higher rates of parental stress, and 26% were assessed with major depression (compared with 15% of those who did not suffer IPV). IPV was significantly associated with perpetrating child abuse and neglect. Ratings of IPV, maternal stress, and maternal maltreatment were highly correlated.
Comment: Missing from this study is information about whether the mothers reciprocated the violence from their partners, whether the fathers also abused and neglected the children, and the role of alcohol or substance abuse. Clearly, though, women who are victims of IPV are at high risk for maltreating their small children. Clinicians should attend not only to the impact of these traumatic situations on the women but also to the possibility that they, in turn, might put their children at risk.
— Joel Yager, MD
Published in Journal Watch Psychiatry January 26, 2009
Taylor CA et al. Intimate partner violence, maternal stress, nativity, and risk for maternal maltreatment of young children. Am J Public Health 2009 Jan; 99:175.
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The rate of major complications in the study operating rooms fell from 11% in the baseline period to 7% after introduction of the checklist, a reduction of more than one third. Even more dramatically, inpatient deaths following major operations fell by more than 40% (from 1.5% to 0.8%) with implementation of the checklist. The reductions were of equal magnitude in high income and lower income sites in the study.
The pilot hospitals used a checklist developed by an expert panel convened by the World Health Organization as part of its "Safe Surgery Saves Lives" Initiative, led by Atul Gawande, Associate Professor of Health Policy and Management at HSPH and a surgeon at Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston. The checklist is a single page that requires only a few minutes to complete at three critical junctures of operative care: before anesthesia is administered, before skin incision, and before the patient is removed from the operating room. Items on the checklist are intended to ensure safe delivery of anesthesia, appropriate preventive measures against infection, effective teamwork and other essential practices in operative care.
A recent study from Flinders University concluded that the suicide rate amongst farmers was around 50 per cent higher than the rest of the population.
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The Government response to the Garling Report is due no later than March 2009.